Open society

The open society was conceived in 1932 by French philosopher Henri Bergson. The idea was further developed during the Second World War by Austrian-born British philosopher Karl Popper.Bergson describes a closed society as a closed system of law or religion. It is static, like a closed mind. Bergson suggests that if all traces of civilization were to disappear, the instincts of the closed society for including or excluding others would remain. In contrast, an open society is dynamic and inclined to moral universalism.Popper saw the open society as part of a historical continuum reaching from the organic, tribal, or closed society, through the open society marked by a critical attitude to tradition, to the abstract or depersonalized society lacking all face-to-face interaction transactions.In open societies, the government is expected to be responsive and tolerant, and its political mechanisms transparent and flexible. It can be characterized as opposed to authoritarianism. - wikipedia

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